Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim.Manufacturing became an important component of the city's economy, and the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century.Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Irish Potato Famine; by 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston.
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The renaming on September 7, 1630, (Old Style) who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water.
Their settlement was initially limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus.
Boston remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, and was known for its garment production and leather-goods industries.
A network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories.
The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC.